Saturday, June 29, 2013

EDTECH Research

EDTECH Research Assignment

Hello Everyone!

During this assignment I have learned two things about myself. The first thing I learned is, I write like I speak and that makes for A LOT of confusing sentence structure when proof reading haha. The second is walking away from the paper and returning the next day will reveal a whole new paper your eyes were not seeing the previous night.  This of course is all good stuff to me, stuff I can build on and work on.  With that said, I've also come to realize that research papers maybe more accessible today then in any other point in history.   I would hope when writing and researching the same ease of access is being used to argue against the topic or theory we have in mind as well as supporting it. Never before has it been so easy to gather information on our topics that today's academic writing should truly reflect a three hundred sixty degree approach. An approach that covers not just what the writers wants us to believe but also alternative information and statistics that shed light on both sides of the issue. That is one feature I plan to use a lot. Sometimes it is hard to get students to understand the hidden side to everything, or the alternative viewpoint that may not be the popular one. In economics  these viewpoints and alternatives are a major component of what the students should learn.

I found Google scholar to be user friendly and the search function to provide an abundance of results. There were times I questioned the formatting and other times the drop down menu seemed to switch back to MLA just for kicks on me.  One function I wouldn't mind seeing would be an Astrix or special annotation for original works. One article I was referencing was on the results page six times. Each time it had a different referencing format. Some formats were for web articles, some for journal, and one for a blog.  I know I could of used any of them, in my opinion it just would of helped to know which one was the first.

Enjoy your weekend!

Friday, June 28, 2013

Blogging as Pedagogic Practice Thoughts

Blogging as Pedagogic Practice Artefact and Ecology

Hi Everyone!

Today I am going to share just some quick thoughts about Marcus O' Donnell's article Blogging as Pedagogic Practice: Artefact and Ecology.  I have linked the article above. 

I cannot explain why or where my train of thought came from but for some unknown reason to me the  United States Army motto: An Army of One kept echoing in my thoughts towards the end of O'Donnell's article. Feel free to question my sanity for that but at least let me explain. The army of one motto is modeled off the belief the strength of all is aided by the strength of one. So here I am reading an academic article and digesting it by comparing it to military recruitment strategies.  The more I thought about it though, the more I realized the concepts were not all that different.  The strength of student blogging has the potential to come from its uses in multiple classes and curriculum.  In O'Donnell's article there is a reference to a teacher’s post about her honeymoon with blogging in her classroom being over. A comment on that post read, "blogs are not good tools for facilitating discussion".  That comment is right. One person actively participating is not going to open up the potential blogging could have. One student actively blogging about what he or she understands from the lesson is not going to help  reach the objectives they need to meet. Much like in the army's motto, one person does not make an army. It is the strength of many; individual persons that makes the army. 

We cannot expect a vibrant conversation to magically emerge in student blogs without providing a development framework (O'Donnell, 2006). If only a few classes or students embrace blogging then educators should realize the concept might not have been properly implemented. Only when integrated with a plan and road map for expectations should blogging or even technology in the classroom  be attempted. Too often, the assumption is that new technology is best and should be adopted right away.   Without the proper measures taken however, it will most likely feel like a failure to teachers and administrators. Teachers might complain about the hype of blogging and how it does not aid in what they do, but is that a fair assessment? What if the problem lies in its implementation?  Again, the army of one motto rings in my thoughts. The implementation process is only as good as the one teacher developing the lesson plan for its uses. Does it stop there though? I do not think so, I think the army now comes into play. Who is the army behind helping a teacher incorporate a blog? How about their educational technologist,  IT support staff, the school board who helps explain its importance, and the parents who realize the potential or addresses their fears. With the fears addressed administrators can take more precautions to meet the needs of the parents. And what about the superintendent who recognizes that using blogs across multiple grades, classes, and curriculum will help build and utilize its maximum potential? Together that army has the potential to incorporate a technology that can benefit the student.

I cannot explain why an Army of One stuck in my mind this whole time. Isn't that the point of being able to blog and write though? While I cannot explain that feeling, I can write it, and get that thought out in the world.  Maybe it makes sense to my audience and maybe it does not.  More importantly  though writing about it helped my understanding of this article.  It helped me digest the information, and build a concept out of an inner feeling.  "To Papert, projecting out our inner feelings and ideass is key to learning"(O'Donnell, 2006).


O'Donnell, M. (2006). Blogging as pedagogic practice artefact and ecology. Asia Pacific Media Educator, (17), 5-19. 

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

List Entry: Class Video Resources - Ted Talks and Business Movies

Hi Everyone!

About a month ago I found myself  in the need for some documentaries, business related movies or videos to show my night class. While I have a list of videos to show from the textbook publisher I was really itching for something brand new, not only for the students but for myself as well. So today I decided to put the videos and Ted Talks, I use for my classes all in one spot. For anyone looking for something fresh. Please feel free to provide any suggestions as well!

Movies (topics range from management to labor relations):

12 o clock High

Too Big Too Fail


MoneyBall (great for economics class)

Harlan County U.S.A. (1976, Good Documentary for Labor Relations)

Norma Rae (another good Labor Relations Movies)

To Die In Jerusalem (I showed this in Critical Thinking class)



Inside Job (great documentary about the events leading up to the 2008 crash)

Ted Talks:

Steve Jobs: How to live before you die

Larry Smith: Why you will fail to have a great career

Drew Dudley: Everyday leadership

Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action

Stanley McChrystal: Listen, learn ... then lead

Shawn Achor: The happy secret to better work

Rory Sutherland: Perspective is everything

Rory Sutherland: Life lessons from an ad man

Malcolm Gladwell: Choice, happiness and spaghetti sauce

Lastly I would like to suggest for everyone to watch "The Last Lecture".
Randy Pausch Last Lecture: Achieving Your Childhood Dreams 

Thursday, June 20, 2013

RSS in Education

Hello Everyone, 

I approached this video based on the students receiving a previous lesson plan involving setting up, and getting to know Firefox as an alternative web browser. The students spent time downloading Firefox and getting to know the add-on and apps features. From there my tutorial begins.  My goal is to have the students use RSS readers as part of their class objective in economics. The class objectives asks students to identify the importance of economics in current affairs. In order to complete this objective and spark a communication with the students about current events I ask them to provide every Tuesday 3 events from the previous week in economics.  Before I would accept a paragraph write up with a newspaper clipping or a article printed out.  Now to incorporate RSS readers and blogging, I'm asking the students to create an economics journal, and update their journal based on news and information they have fed into their RSS readers. My video is a first draft of what I want to say and provide as the brief tutorial for introducing them to how their RSS reader feedly works and how they can add to their subscriptions. I'm probably going to change my wording a little bit here and there, but I did want to put what I have so far out there for comments and suggestions. Thanks a ton! 

Wednesday, June 19, 2013


Go to Quizlet now and try it out

Good Morning Everyone,

Today I wanted to share a great website and service. It is called Quizlet. Think of quizlet as this large user generated study group. All subjects have study aides from games to flash cards that students create and can share with other students. On top of that teachers can create and share as well. Students can build a study guide and then instead of having the traditional flashcard set up can actually play games like space race or scatter. Space race for example is a learning tool that scrolls the question from side to side of your computer screen. In order to "shoot" the question down you have to answer it correctly. Once you answer it correctly you are awarded points. For an intro into economics night class (mostly of adult learners) I had students truly enjoying competing against eachother for the high score. The results from that exam, were the highest class average i've experinced for those three particular chapters in the two years I taught the course. While overwhelming at first I would take some time and really play around with quizlet, I think you'll find it as great as I do.

Some information from their website:

How Quizlet works

Quizlet has no pre-determined curriculum. Students define what they need to learn, and we provide the tools. We help Art History majors learn paintings, Spanish students learn their verbs, 5th graders learn their spelling words, and new waiters learn the menus of their restaurants. Our aim is to build software that any learner can use, so we make most of our stuff free.

The Quizlet story

Quizlet was founded in 2005 by 15-year-old Andrew Sutherland for a high-school French class. He wanted an easy-to-use tool for learning vocabulary. He built Quizlet for himself, shared it with his friends, and it grew from there.
Quizlet is now among the largest educational websites in the world. Millions of teachers and students from every country in the world use Quizlet. Because our website is free, we see no limit to the number of people who could use it.
Quizlet is headquartered in downtown San Francisco, California.

Quick Stats

  • #11 app in the free Education category of the app store
  • 473,684 study sessions today
  • 80,491,444 visitors (last 12 months)
  • 24,362,809 study sets

Tuesday, June 18, 2013

Generational Differences and Our Instructional Responsibility

Generational Differences and our instructional responsibility

Before reading “ Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants” by Marc Presnsky and “Do Generational Differences Matter in Instructional Design?” by Professor Thomas C. Reeves, it would be an understatement to claim how ignorant I was to this hotly contested topic. I truly had no idea such a feverish debate has been in the heads of scholars and writers in the world of educational technology. I guess it surprises me that the debate is so fierce. I understand positions arguing against the generalities and vague claims Marc Prensky makes in his writing.  For instance, “There are hundreds of examples of the digital immigrant accent. They include printing out your email, needing to print out a document written on the computer in order to edit (rather than just editing on the screen)” (Prensky, 2001).  Well according to this logic, I am a digital immigrant, however based on his timeline of whom he considers digital natives; his stereotypes of me can also be found.  I have grown up with video games, cell phones, tablets, and technology induced multimedia.  I also print out documents from my computer to proof read. It is my personal preference, so how does this make me a digital immigrant?  While I can argue his writing is less than ideal from an academic standard, I cannot argue that there are in fact some valid statements from my point of view in his article.  I like the simplicity of the definition he gives what a digital native is.  “Our students today are all “native speakers” of the digital language of computers, video games, and the internet”. I agree, for those fortunate enough to grow up in a household that can offer their children and teenagers access to technology that these students flow from device to device with an ease that experts have, and are truly early adopters. I can visualize his definition of digital natives with faces of former students even.  Where he lost me was when he labeled “all” students as native speakers.  For one thing, the definition of a student is incredibly broad.  For example, let me introduce to you Bob.  Bob worked at a local CD printing plant for thirty-seven years.  If we were to use the distinguishing generational guidelines of Baby Boomers, Millennial and so on, Bob would be classified as a Baby Boomer.  When that local factory laid-off five hundred employees, Bob found himself as part of the downsizing. The workers were given a tuition plan that involved going back to school to learn a trade or venture into a new career.  Now Bob finds his way into my classroom, a classroom that is a hybrid of educational technology and traditional lecture. Mr. Prensky, Bob is a student would you not agree?  He did not play Super Mario or Legend of Zelda.  He has watched cell phones evolve from being located in your car, a bag, and finally its very own freestanding device. He has observed all of this unfold from a distance without taking part in the technology.  Bob is a digital immigrant, but a student nonetheless.  We can label him anything we want based on his generation, but during any period of his life he can still fit the definition of a student and a learner. So I would argue we be careful when labeling such a broad definition of “all” students, as Mr. Prensky does. It is clear not “all” students are k-12 or traditional college students.

 “Digital Immigrant teachers assume that learners are the same as they have always been and that the same methods that worked for the teachers when they were students will work for their students now”. (Prensky, 2001). During my academic career at the Pennsylvania State University, I can say based on experience with the exception of three professors for four years, every class had a similar set up: reading from the text, text examples, and then an exam. My problem with claiming this as an academic wide issue is that I can only vouch for one university, one program, and that programs professors that I specifically had.  To group all professors as digital immigrants without proper research or statistics to back it up is again unfair to worldwide academics. 

                Let us fast forward to Bob’s last day of classes and his graduation with an associate’s degree.  Baby Boomer Bob now has an online resume, blog, Facebook, and RSS feed tied into all topics criminal justice.  While he was a digital immigrant like all of us have to be at some point or another, he still was very much entitled to the instruction and education all students should receive regardless of what they are brought up with, or the digital toys they learn on.  My problem with the thought process of labeling students and people like Bob as digitally incompetent or competent, is that thought process could map out how we approach educating Bob.  Imagine, if because he was a nontraditional student with a certain time period of birth he had a tailored curriculum based on what the opinion of his abilities were? What if in his academic career, he only had to take introduction to computers and that was it?  Bob became technological capable because we have not classified students, because we helped him bridge the gap with technology, as any good educator should. We helped him find his digital talents with a structured curriculum that benefits all students’ natives or immigrant.  Twenty percent of households are still without an internet connection ("Household internet usage," 2012) so how can we paint such an expansive landscape of what a Post Millennial, GenMe,  and the Digital Native student is, if the facts themselves are still developing.  My final concerns regarding these two readings are they try to paint an exact image and argue for an exact image of what students are and how they learn.  There is no such thing.  Sure, you can generalize what a Baby Boomer’s work ethic is and how he might learn in a given environment, but as long as there are exceptions to the rule, tailoring instructional design to support a specific demographic based and their “generation” is almost as bad as basing instructional design on whether a student is a boy or girl.  When the Silent Generation, Boom Generation, 13th Generation, and Millennial Generation sit in a classroom, they are all students, and like any classroom, they all have a unique set of needs, disadvantages, advantages, experiences, and learning styles.  Educators should design instruction to meet all learning style, whether it’s using technology to benefit them all, or not using technology  because using it just to use it can be counterproductive, the truth remains they are all still “students”.  

The beauty of being able to write this as part of a class exercise and a blog is I am not bound by the code of academic journals. I can freely use my opinion without the painstaking research that goes in to referencing other academic journal to support how I feel about the topic.  Again, I can only share my opinion. That opinion is simple. Do generational differences matter in instructional design? Yes, I believe they do, because they help us understand what truly matters most, the student.  Should we tailor instructional designed based solely on generational differences? Absolutely not.  In the words of an 83-year-old woman (yes I asked her age after our conversation), I sat next to on a mall bench once. “Do you follow Connan O’Brian on twitter?  He is absolutely hilarious, he just sent this picture to his followers of a kitten with its head in a piece of bread, I just love my phone for this stuff,” She said. Now I realize digital immigrants can always learn to benefit and enjoy technology the same as natives.



Reeves, T. C. (2007). Do generational differences matter in instructional design. Manuscript submitted for publication, Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, Retrieved from

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, Digitial Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5)

U.S. Census Burea, (2012). Household internet usage (nformation and Communications 723). Retrieved from website:




Friday, June 14, 2013

Evernote Overview

Hi Everyone,

I just wanted to share quickly how I personally use the app EVERNOTE to enhance my day to day activities as a instructor and program director. I use it for a wide array activities to benefit both myself and the student.

 I recently just started integrating Evernote with writing my lesson plans and lecture notes. In my classes I have a mixed bag of students. Some of my students have varying degrees of IEPs. For along time students who needed audiobook publisher support, to have the chapter notes read to them were bound by 1. The book we were using in class and if it had that type of support and 2. What the publisher thought was important to include in the audio, which often does not provide alternate examples for the concepts the student are trying to learn. With the record Evernote feature I have a simple and easy way to integrate audio and send my recorded lecture notes, examples and recorded exam questions to the students that need this type of alternative learning experience . I'm aware there are other resources where this was possible. Evernote just happens to be in my opinion the best one stop app to write a lecture ,integrate pictures,graphics and audio to effectively reach my entire class. So if you were on the fence about evernote or have never heard about it before be sure to check it out from the link I provided below.  Enjoy your weekend!

Evernote Link

Elements of Educational Technology

The above link will take you to my expressed opinion on the topic “elements of educational technology” from a pre-publication draft of the first chapter of a book published by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT),done in Evernote, which by the way I am still praising as a great compliment app for any professional. As some other students noted, in the grand scheme of things 2004 was a very long time ago. In the world of technology, the National Security Agency (NSA) was probably just figuring out how to collect data from your instant messaging account.  I am joking of course. While technology itself has continued to evolve and change since 2004, I think the definition and concept of what educational technology is, and our role in it, is still relevant. The elements detailed in this paper in my opinion are still very much pertinent and for some elements maybe even more pertinent today. I chose “study”, “improving”, and “performance” as my focal points. My thought process was based on the incredible importance educational standards play in our professional lives and our student’s lives. Without having clarity to what has shaped, and continues to shape our industry, we would be working for lack of a better comparison blind.  Our daily lesson plans would be a trial and error process that would affect the very lives of our students and their future. I understand there is always an element of trial and error when adopting an educational technology approach. However, without any standard measures that come from what the paper defines as “study” and then the suggestions based on those findings where we can then establish “improving” and “performance” models we would be in much worse shape. Of course, that is all just in my opinion. Thank you for stopping by, and Thank you for taking the time to read my thoughts on this topic, enjoy your weekend!

Thursday, June 13, 2013

Student Loan Interest Rates

Good Afternoon Everyone,

I just wanted to share that link above, because it is an important moment in student funding. In the education field and those of us still attending school, student loans have been a thorn in our side as well as one of life’s subtle reminders there are times when you just have to suck it up, for instance taking out student loans to pay for your education. Student loans have been called many things: a means to an end, double-edged sword, etc. One of the only things we can do at this point is wait. The frustrating part is that politics plays an incredible role in all of this, and regardless of whether your democrat or republican, student loans do not break you down by political affiliation. It is something we can converse about from a neutral territory with one common goal. What is best for the students and our future graduates? And don't get discouraged. Even the leader of the free world had to contend with student loans. President and First Lady Obama finished paying off their own student loans nine years ago (DERUY, 2013)

The easiest way for me to break down the potential risks of increasing student loan rates even just on the subsidized side, is a look at the economic long-term effects. Most of what I will detail comes in the form of what Paul Krugman a renowned economist calls “your spending income, is my spending income”. Meaning when I spend money I help you have spending money. Let me give a quick example. When I go to the market and buy a frozen chicken dinner, I can help the high school cashier pay for her movie ticket that night. In return, that helps another high school student that works as the ticket cashier. It helps that cashier perhaps pay for their used car at the local used car lot, who then in return can go back to the grocery market to buy a food order for his or her family, and that starts the cycle all over again. How does this happen? When I buy that frozen dinner with my income, I am giving some sort of profit to the grocery store, from that income they pay the cashier and it goes on and on. While a very simplistic example, the concept itself is what Mr. Krguman shoots for. What does this have to do with student loan rates?

Keeping in mind that concept, lets fast forward to someone you may know who is graduating college. It is important to note the article references that increases are coming from undergraduate student funding, but more debt on that end will count just as much. Typically, what are the next steps this new graduate with increased debt and a loan that was 3.4% and now 6.8% take?The first step is deciding to pursue a higher education degree or testing the job market. Increasing undergraduate debt doesn’t make the type of job they will need to get in order to afford that increase develop out thin air. It should come as no surprise that since our economic hiccup the number of students pursuing graduate and doctoral degrees is at its highest level in educational history. With the increased competition of graduate degrees and lack of careers for bachelor degrees, can we blame the students for wanting to compete or at least afford their loan payment? Post baccalaureate enrollment had been steady at about 1.6 million in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but rose 78 percent between 1985 and 2010.You can reference table 215. (Chapman, 2012). If a student does continue on their academic career, even more debt obviously results. The thought process to offset that decision is that higher paying jobs would be available for the students upon completion of their graduate courses. Now for sake of time I’m going to assume we all know that under employment and unemployment are at concerning if not downright scary levels still with no marked tendency towards pre 2008 rates. So with increased debt on the student side and the value of the job a graduate student can obtain falling, we can begin to see some issues developing. A quick reminder about the housing crash, increased debt in the mortgage borrower due to poor standards in borrowing limitations made them ripe for income over extension.We can see a similar pattern emerge if the careers are not available to pay for debt students undertake; they too will be ripe for income over extension. However, they will not be foreclosing homes; they just will not be purchasing any, which if that happens on a large scale could create a stagnated economy. Make no mistake that debt will increase with student loan increases, be it, undergraduate or graduate that is just the way increasing loan rates works. Now some might say, well so what if they cannot buy a house renting is still generating an income for the landlord and that applies to “your income is my income”. The person who says this is correct, but let us look at that a little further.Have you ever bought your first home?If you have, then you know just how many different purchases within the first 6 weeks are involved as well. The house itself; which helps the real estate agent and his/her income,hiring inspectors which helps provide for them and their family, contracting a cable company which employs a number of local people, buying furniture , groceries, dishes, paint, lawn mowers, landscapers, contractors, on and on and on. We could come up with thousands of people that new homeowners interact, and on top of that, their home acts as an investment into the economy for an extended period.

I know it seems kind of drastic to blame all of these factors on increasing student loan rates, and I’m not the type of person that paints the end of the world because the consumer price index jumps up a quarter of a percent. It is hard not to think about though. Long-term effects are often over looked, effects that now could very well lead to the new bubble burst or crisis. Ask any of the companies or investment banks that were too big to fail leading up to the January 2008. Until then my opinion is all I can have. My opinion is increasing the debt of a population without increasing that population’s chance of full time employment seems counterproductive to me. The good news is, academic intelligence is also at an all-time high, and eventually maybe some of that intelligence will take Washington and decision makers by storm.


DERUY, E. (2013, June 3rd). The july hike in student loan interest rates explained. Retrieved from

Chapman, C. (2012, May 1st). Digest of education statistics. Retrieved from

Table 215. Total postbaccalaureate fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex of student, andcontrol of institution: 1967 through 2010
Year Total Full-time Part-time
1 2 3 4
1967 ............... 896,065 448,238 447,827  
1968 ............... 1,037,377 469,747 567,630  
1969 ............... 1,120,175 506,833 613,342  
1970 .......................... 1,212,243 536,226 676,017  
1971 ......................... 1,204,390 564,236 640,154  
1972 .................... 1,272,421 583,299 689,122  
1973 ....................... 1,342,452 610,935 731,517  
1974 ........................ 1,425,001 643,927 781,074  
1975 ............................. 1,505,404 672,938 832,466  
1976 .......................... 1,577,546 683,825 893,721  
1977 ....................... 1,569,084 698,902 870,182  
1978 ..................... 1,575,693 704,831 870,862  
1979 .......................... 1,571,922 714,624 857,298  
1980 ......................... 1,621,840 736,214 885,626  
1981 ...................... 1,617,150 732,182 884,968  
1982 ..................... 1,600,718 736,813 863,905  
1983 ........................ 1,618,666 747,016 871,650  
1984 ...................... 1,623,869 750,735 873,134  
1985 ...................... 1,650,381 755,629 894,752  
1986 .................. 1,705,536 767,477 938,059  
1987 ................... 1,720,407 768,536 951,871  
1988 .................. 1,738,789 794,340 944,449  
1989 .................. 1,796,029 820,254 975,775  
1990 ........................... 1,859,531 844,955 1,014,576  
1991 ....................... 1,919,666 893,917 1,025,749  
1992 ....................... 1,949,659 917,676 1,031,983  
1993 ..................... 1,980,844 948,136 1,032,708  
1994 .................... 2,016,182 969,070 1,047,112  
1995 ....................... 2,030,062 983,534 1,046,528  
1996 ........................... 2,040,572 1,004,114 1,036,458  
1997 ....................... 2,051,747 1,019,464 1,032,283  
1998 ................... 2,070,030 1,024,627 1,045,403  
1999 ............... 2,110,246 1,049,591 1,060,655  
2000 .................. 2,156,896 1,086,674 1,070,222  
2001 ................. 2,212,377 1,119,862 1,092,515  
2002 ................. 2,354,634 1,212,107 1,142,527  
2003 ................. 2,431,117 1,280,880 1,150,237  
2004 ................. 2,491,414 1,325,841 1,165,573  
2005 ................. 2,523,511 1,350,581 1,172,930  
2006 ................. 2,574,568 1,386,226 1,188,342  
2007 ................. 2,644,357 1,428,914 1,215,443  
2008 ................. 2,737,076 1,492,813 1,244,263  
2009 ................. 2,862,391 1,579,283 1,283,108  
2010 ................. 2,937,454 1,630,699 1,306,755  

NOTE: Data include unclassified graduate students. Data through 1995 are
for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions.
 Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in
 Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very
 similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges
 and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees.
 (See Appendix A: Guide to Sources for details.) Some data have been revised from previously
published figures.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
 Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS),
"Fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities" surveys, 1967 through 1985;
Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS),
"Fall Enrollment Survey" (IPEDS-EF:86-99); and IPEDS Spring 2001 through Spring 2011,
 Enrollment component. (This table was prepared September 2011.)